Causal Agent: 

Fungus (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. momordicae)

Characteristic Symptoms:
Affected plants show yellowing of leaf veins and wilting.
Vascular discoloration of infected stem and roots are important diagnostic symptoms.
One-sided wilt may also occur.
Conditions for Disease Development:
The pathogen is soil-borne and is host-specific (i.e., infects only bittergourd).
The pathogen is disseminated primarily by movement of infested soil and plant debris.
Infection occurs through the root, primarily in the area of elongation, and is aided by wounds created by insect/nematode feeding.
The disease is most severe in light, sandy, slightly acidic soils (pH 5.0-6.0) with low to moderate soil moisture.
Optimum soil temperature for disease development is at 20-27°C.
The pathogen may be seed-borne.
Management and Control:
Avoid planting in contaminated land or area with previous history of high FW incidence or do not plant bittergourd on the same area for a minimum of 5-7 years.
Remove wilted plants including roots as soon as symptoms are observed to minimize spread of disease.
Control root-knot nematode and root-feeding insects since they may help in disease establishment and spread.
Use resistant/moderately resistant varieties, if available.
Use resistant rootstock in grafted seedlings.
Increase the soil pH by liming and reduce nitrogen level in the soil.
Biofumigation of soil using chopped mustard leaves can help reduce inoculum level in the soil.
Compendium of Cucurbit Diseases (1996) by the American Phytopathological Society

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