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Causal Agent: 

Fungus (Fusarium oxysporum)


Characteristic Symptoms:
Affected plants show yellowing, curling of leaves and damping-off
Affacted plants show basal rotting.
Conditions for Disease Development:
The fungus enters the bulb through wounds, insect injuries or through root scars at the base.
High soil temperature favors disease development.
Diseased plants are source of secondary inoculum, which spreads from plant to plant in the field.
Management and Control:
Use pathogen-free seeds.
Crop rotation for 4 years or longer if fields are infested.
Avoid wounding/injuries of roots as this may predispose plants to infection.
Dip seedlings in fungicide like mancozeb (e.g. Attain M-80Ⓡ, Achem Mancozeb 80 WPⓇ, Micron 80 WOⓇ, VanzebⓇ) before transplanting to minimize infection.

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